cloud computing

Cloud Computing: What it is and How does it work

Cloud computing: What is it? How does it function? When discussing technology or computing, the phrase “cloud” is not new. Simply put, the term “cloud” refers to the Internet. In reality, diagrams of the Internet frequently employ cloud symbols. The Internet is similar to a cloud if you imagine it as a virtual “place” that links users from all over the world. It uses networks to spread information.

What is cloud computing?

Delivering hosted services through the internet is referred to as “cloud computing” in general. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service are the three main categories or types of cloud computing into which these services fall (SaaS).

A cloud can be either public or private. Anyone online can purchase services from a public cloud. With specific access and authorization settings, a private cloud is a proprietary network or data center that offers hosted services to a small group of users. Cloud computing’s objective, whether it’s private or public, is to offer simple, scalable access to computer resources and IT services.

The hardware and software elements necessary for a cloud computing model’s correct execution are included in cloud infrastructure. Utility computing and on-demand computing are other terms for cloud computing.

Both public and private clouds are possible. For a price, public cloud providers offer their services over the Internet. On the other hand, limited numbers of users can access private cloud services. These services consist of a networked infrastructure that offers hosted services. A hybrid option is also available, which incorporates aspects of both public and private services.

Types of Cloud Services

No matter the service type, cloud computing services provide users a number of benefits, such as:

  • Audio and video streaming
  • Delivering software on demand
  • Email
  • Storage, backup, and data retrieval
  • Creating and testing apps
  • Analyzing data

How does cloud computing work?

To describe how cloud computing works, client devices can access data and cloud applications from remote physical servers, databases, and computers via the internet.

The back end, which is made up of databases, servers, and computers, is connected to the front end, which is made up of the accessing client device, browser, network, and cloud software applications. The front end can access the data stored in the back end, which acts as a repository.

Communications between the front and back ends are managed by a centralized server. Protocols are used by the central server to speed up data transfer. The central server uses both software and middleware to regulate connectivity between multiple client devices and cloud servers. Typically, each unique workload or application has its own dedicated server.

Cloud computing relies heavily on virtualization and automation technologies. Users can swiftly abstract and deploy services as well as the supporting cloud infrastructure through the use of virtualization. Because of automation and the associated orchestration capabilities, users can provide resources, link services, and deploy workloads with a high level of self-service, all without needing the direct assistance of the cloud provider’s IT staff.

Different types of cloud computing services


The PaaS concept places development tools on the infrastructure of cloud providers. Using APIs, web portals, or gateway software, users can access these tools online. PaaS is utilized for the creation of all types of software, and numerous PaaS service providers host the finished product. Salesforce’s Lightning Platform, AWS Elastic Beanstalk, and Google App Engine are examples of popular PaaS platforms.


Software as a service (SaaS) is a method of distributing programs via the internet; these programs are frequently referred to as web services. Users can use a PC or mobile device with internet connectivity to access SaaS applications and services from any location. Users get access to databases and application software under the SaaS model. The productivity and email capabilities provided by Microsoft 365 are a typical example of a SaaS application.


Application programming interfaces (APIs) are provided by IaaS providers, such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), to enable users to move workloads to virtual machines (VM). Users are given a certain amount of storage space and are free to start, stop, access, and modify the virtual machine and storage as needed. For different workload requirements, IaaS providers provide small, medium, big, extra-large, and memory- or compute-optimized instances in addition to providing instance customisation. For commercial users, the IaaS cloud model is the most similar to a remote data center.

Cloud computing deployment models

In the public cloud model, The cloud service is transmitted over the internet through a third-party cloud service provider (CSP). Although many services are accessible with long-term commitments, public cloud services are often supplied on demand and typically by the minute or hour. Just the central processing unit cycles, storage, or bandwidth that customers actually use are charged to them. Prominent public CSPs include IBM, Oracle, Tencent, AWS, Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform (GCP).

Private cloud Internal users receive services from a company’s data center. An organization creates and manages its own underpinning cloud infrastructure with a private cloud. This architecture keeps the administration, control, and security features common to local data centers while delivering the flexibility and convenience of the cloud. IT chargeback may or may not be used to bill internal users for services. VMware and OpenStack are common private cloud technologies and providers.

A hybrid cloud is a blend of on-premises private cloud orchestration and automation with public cloud services. Businesses can use the public cloud to accommodate workload surges or demand spikes while running mission-critical workloads or sensitive applications on the private cloud. The objective of a hybrid cloud is to provide a unified, automated, scalable environment that makes the most of public cloud infrastructure while yet keeping mission-critical data under your control.

Also, businesses are utilizing numerous IaaS providers or a multi-cloud approach more frequently. This makes it possible for programs to move between several cloud providers or even run simultaneously across two or more cloud providers.

Businesses use several clouds for a variety of reasons. They might do this, for instance, to lessen the chance of a cloud service interruption or to benefit from a provider’s more affordable price. Because of the variations in services and APIs offered by different cloud providers, multi-cloud installation and application development can be difficult.

Yet, as providers’ services and APIs converge and become more standardized through industry initiatives like the Open Cloud Computing Interface, multi-cloud installations should become simpler.

A community cloud, which is used by a number of enterprises, supports a specific community that has similar goals, policies, security needs, and compliance requirements. A community cloud may be on or off premises and is either maintained by these companies or a different vendor.

Advantages of Cloud Computing

Companies from all industries can profit from using cloud-based software, which can be accessed by browser or native apps on any device. Users may seamlessly transfer their files and settings from one device to another as a consequence.

Using cloud computing for file access is simply the tip of the iceberg. Users may check their email on any computer and store files using services like Dropbox and Google Drive thanks to cloud computing. Users can back up their music, files, and images using cloud computing services, ensuring that they will always have access to them in the event of a hard drive accident.

Large firms can save a ton of money this way as well. Companies had to invest in pricey information management infrastructure and technology purchases, construction, and maintenance before the cloud became a practical substitute. Fast Internet connections can replace expensive server farms and IT staff in businesses, allowing workers to do jobs online by interacting with the cloud.

People can conserve storage space on their computers or laptops by using the cloud infrastructure. Software businesses can now sell their wares online rather than through more conventional, tangible ways like discs or flash drives, which allows customers to upgrade software more quickly. Customers of Adobe, for instance, can use an online subscription to access the applications included in its Creative Cloud. This makes it simple for consumers to download updates and fixes for their programs.

Disadvantages of the Cloud

There are hazards, of course, with all the speed, efficiencies, and innovations that come with cloud computing.

Security has always been a major concern with the cloud, particularly when it comes to private financial and medical documents. Although regulations require cloud computing firms to strengthen their compliance and security measures, it is still a problem today. Important data is encrypted for protection, but if the encryption key is lost, the data is gone as well.

Cloud computing firms’ servers are susceptible to internal errors, power outages, and natural calamities. A California blackout may render customers in New York helpless, and a Texas company could lose its data if something causes its Maine-based provider to fall. This illustrates the geographical reach of cloud computing.

There is a learning curve for both employees and management, as with any technology. Nevertheless, since so many people may access and alter data through a single gateway, unintentional errors could spread throughout the entire system.

What Is an Example of Cloud Computing?

Today, both organizations and people employ a variety of cloud computing applications. Streaming platforms for audio or video, where the actual media files are kept remotely, are one type of cloud service. Platforms for data storage like Google Drive, Dropbox, OneDrive, or Box would be an additional option.

Is Cloud Computing Safe?

Data security and platform security are major concerns because software and data are stored remotely in cloud computing. Measures made to safeguard digital assets and data housed on cloud-based services are referred to as cloud security. Two-factor authentication (2FA), the use of VPNs, security tokens, data encryption, and firewall services are just a few of the safeguards used to protect this data.